Maltron Internation Limited
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Fluid Balance - Hydration & dehydration, Kidney Function, Decompensated heart failure,
                                                                                 Nutritional and Body Composition of Preterm/Neonatal/Paediatric

Calibrated for Gestational age 23 weeks to 18 years helping clinician detect and confirm any abnormal conditions


FDSA+ Multi-frequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analyser

Maltron’s FDSA+ BIA technology allows clinicians to monitor changes easily and accurately without the need of complex clinical techniques and optimize discharge time and decrease long-term complications.

A Clinical Tool to Assess:

  Hypervolemic Euvolemic and Hypovolemic state
  Intracellular & Extracellular Fluid
  Body Fat
  Muscle & Nutrition management
  Accurate tracking of changes

Intelligent Analyser designed to be
interactive and deliver precise benefits to patients



Quantitative tool to scientifically measure euvolemic state fast accurate and repeatable.

Maltron Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) is a simple, low-cost, non-invasive and non-intrusive method for the assessment of Body Water. The Total body Water (TBW) is divided into Intracellular (ICW) and Extracellular ECW) water. Fat Free Mass (FFM) is also assessed using Maltron BIA due to fact that total body water (TBW) makes up the most part of FFM.

Effects of Hydration, Dehydration & monitoring Fluid Retention in NICU/PICU

Overhydration and dehydration in clinical children is a major cause of mortality. Assessments with Bioscan of Dehydration, Overhydration, Fat Free Mass Hydration (FFMH), Extracellular (ECW) and Intracellular Water (ICW) can assist effective fluid resuscitation and acheive optimal fluid balance.

Real-Time Bedside Diagnostic and Monitoring of Infants

BioScan 920-II-P the first real-time bedside, easy to use analyser for evaluating children. Assessment can provide healthcare professionals with an objective measure of patient’s targets for interventions which could improve perioperative experiences and postoperative outcomes.

Estimation of Total Body Water and Extra/Intracellular Water

Regular measurements of Total body water (TBW) Extracellular (ECW) and Intracellular Water (ICW) volume should be performed special after aggressive intravenous fluid therapy in Malnutrition, Sepsis, and Trauma infants. Maltron BioScan provides accurate bedside measurement of changes in body fluid compartments.

Accurate, Fast & Non-Invasive Assessment of Dry Weight / Volume Status in Infants

Estimating optimal Dry weight in children is important but difficult to establish with only clinical criteria. The goal in the treatment of dialysis is to achieve and maintain a euvolemic state. Currently euvolemic and “Dry weight” assessments are performed on a trial and error basis. Direct measurement with BioScan of Dry Weight, Excess water, TBW and ECW can provide qualitative information for assessing volume status.

Non Invasive GFR Assessments in Diabetic Infants

Body composition assessment is an important indicator which should be assessed regularly in diabetic patients. Many complications can eventually develop in diabetes such as loss of Fats, Muscle Mass and Bone Minerals may eventually cause Osteoporosis. Therefore monitoring FM, Bone Density, FFM / Muscle Mass and GFR is very important.

Monitoring effectives of weight loss and Estimation of Body Composition

Group of disorders such as diabetes and overactive thyroid glands which affect the metabolism of fat, carbohydrate, protein and minerals which in turn results in weight loss changing body composition. Body composition is an important indicator which should be assessed regularly with BioScan 920 to help with weight management programs.


[+] How Does It Work?


The Biological tissues act partially as a conductor and partially as an insulator. The flow of current through the body will follow the path of least resistance.

A low level current is passed through the subject’s body and the impedance is measured. When water in the body is large the current flows more easily through the body with less resistance (R). The opposite occurs when the individual has a large amount of Body Fat. Adipose (fat) tissue is a poor conductor of electrical current due to its relatively, small water content.

Individuals with large FFM and TBW have less resistance to current flowing through their body compared to those having a smaller FFM. Therefore, Fat-Free Mass (FFM) can be predicted from Total Body Water (TBW).

At low frequency current travels around the cells (extracellular water or ECW).

At high frequency current passes directly through the cells (intracellular water or ICW) and also around the cells (extracellular water or ECW).

Fat Free Mass (FFM) contains large amount of water and electrolytes. BioScan touch i8 NANO is able to measure Total Body Water (TBW) as the electrolytes in the body’s water are excellent conductors of electrical current.

BioScan touch i8 NANO unique Multi-Frequency Impedance and Capacitance analysis measures TBW, Extracellular and Intracellular water compartments to provide professionals the hydration and dehydration status of the subject.

Phase Angle (Biomarker)

BioScan Phase measurement has been found to be an important indicator of mortality and modality.

Phase angle is the relationship between Resistance and Reactance and the delay caused by healthy cell membranes. Zero (0) degrees is an indicator of no cell membranes and Ninety (90) degrees is a Capacitive circuit which consists of all membranes with no fluid.

A healthy individual will have a phase angle of around 6 to 11 degrees. A lower phase angle is associated with cell death or breakdown in the selective permeability of the cell membrane. High phase is consistent with high Reactance and and a correspondingly larger amount of Body Cell Mass (BCM).

BioScan touch i8 NANO has enhanced the clinical applications to assess changes and shifts between the Intracellular water and extracellular water compartments associated with certain diseases.

[+] Assessed Parameters

Maltron’s latest BIAFDSA+ technology allows clinicians for the first time to perform within minutes, non-invasive, non-intrusive, quick, easy and accurate assessment of the following parameters:

  • Fluid Balance – Over Hydration & dehydration
  • Malnutrition Cellular status
  • Body Composition
  • Dry Weight
  • GFR

BioScan touch i8 NANO provides analysis of over 45 different parameters.  

BioScan touch i8 NANO Results Displayed

Assessed Body Fluids Parameters

[+] Technology and Advantages

Maltron's state of the art circuitry allows you to monitor fluid changes and shift in whole body, thorax, trunk, legs and arms.


Maltron Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) is a simple, low-cost, non-invasive and non-intrusive method for the assessment of Body Water. The Total body Water (TBW) is divided into Intracellular (ICW) and Extracellular ECW) water. Fat Free Mass (FFM) is also assessed using Maltron BIA due to fact that total body water (TBW) makes up the most part of FFM.

A small safe current is applied to the body through hand and feet. The body is able to conduct the current due to the presence of electrical conductive materials, which are present in the Fat Free Mass of the body.

The main conductor water is only able to conduct due to the dissolved electrolytes (extracellular:- sodium, Intracellular:- Potassium).


  • Accurate
  • Non-Invasive
  • No undressing
  • Battery operated
  • No Computer Required
  • Automatic Data Storage
  • Quick, Safe and Easy to use
  • Non-Intrusive
  • Pre-Calibration
  • Data Storage
  • Displays results and Targets
  • USB Fast Data Transfer
  • Portable
  • Metric / Imperial
  • Semi Recalibration
  • Automatic switch off
  • No assistance or technical knowledge required

Accurate assessment to estimate dry weight can help improve fluid status of renal patients. Correct fluid status can be performed in Sepsis - ICU patients using estimated weight. 

In the field of Oncology Maltron has established BioMarker base lines in order to predict patient outcome.

The parameters measured by the BioScan touch i8 NANO provide assessment of clinical and nutritional status helping detect abnormal conditions.

[+] Technical Specifications

BioScan touch i8 NANO Comparison & Technical Specification

Technique Bio-Electrical Impedance Analyzer
Frequency Multi-Frequency (5kHz, 50kHz, 100kHz, 200kHz)
Impedance Range 5 - 1100 Ohms
Impedance Resolution 100 - 1100R range : 1R
Impedance Accuracy Impedance to within 0.5% of F.S.D. +/- 3R across 5 - 1100 R range
Phase range 1 - 30.0 Degree
Phase Resolution 0.05 Degree
Phase Accuracy 1% of F.S.D. +/- 0.1 Degree
Resistance Range 5 - 100R
Resistance Resolution 5 - 100R range : 0.1R > 100 - 1100R range : 1R
Reactance Range 0R - 580R
Reactance Resolution 0.1 Ohms
BioScan touch i8 NANO Estimation of

Ambient Temperature Environment
Relative Humidity
Atmospheric Pressure
Test Current
Battery Current
TBW - ECW - ICW in increments of 0.1 litres (0.1pints)
FFM - FM in increments of 0.1Kg (0.1lbs)
BCM 0.1Kg (0.1lb)

+10oc to 40oc
30% to 75% non-Condensing
700hPa to 1060hPa
Mains adapter or 4 X NiMH rechargeable cells
1.825 kgs
272 x 302 x 130 mm
(10.7 x 11.9 x 5.1ins)
No serviceable parts other than replacement of battery
12 months parts and labour (excluding disposables)


Fluid Balance – Over Hydration and Dehydration

Having information of fluid status is a very important goal in order to avoid shock or over hydration.Body Fluids Analyser

  Intracellular and extracellular volumes together with Total Body Water parameters enables clinicians to gain a better understanding of their patient's fluids status.

  BioScan touch i8 NANO helps identify expected fluid and electrolyte shifts and renal function status.

  Individually calibrated target ranges enables BioScan touch i8 NANO to guide clinicians tracking patient's fluid levels more precisely.

Maltron BioScan touch i8 NANO is a relatively inexpensive non-invasive, portable, easy to use method of assessment, which can be performed on any subject both in the field or clinical setting.


Published Clinical Research

Maltron BioScan highly accurate, repeatable and reproducible

Maltron’s passion for pioneering and innovating technologies has lead Maltron to provide clinicians state of art tools for patient care. This has been independently evaluated and verified by clinical researchers.


Perioperative Monitoring of Total Body Water by Bio-Electrical Impedance in Children

T. Maehara, I. Novak, R. K. H. Wyse and
M. J. Elliot

The Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street, London, UK

Read More >

Bioelectrical impedance analysis for assessment of severity of illness in pediatric patients after heart surgery

Shime N, Ashida H, Chihara E, Kageyama K, Katoh Y, Yamagishi M, Tanaka Y.

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Japan

Read More >

Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis (BIVA) in Stable Preterm Newborns.

Margutti AV, Bustamante CR, Sanches M, Padilha M, Beraldo RA, Monteiro JP, Camelo JS Jr.

Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil

Read More >











Clinical Applications

The task Force of European Society of Intensive Care Medicine, states, tests to predict preload responsiveness should be undertaken before any decisions on fluid administration (Coccini et al.2014).

The parameters measured by the BioScan touch i8 NANO provide assessment of clinical and nutritional status helping detect abnormal conditions.

  • NICU / Intensive Care
  •             Renal
  •             Cardiology
  •               Sepsis
  •            Oncology

Fluid responsiveness should be assessed before any fluid administration

Critically ill children are at high risk of underfeeding and AKI, which may lead to further nutritional deficiencies.

    As fluid administration is a real therapeutic challenge. Rather than reduce the patients care to a simple protocol, Maltron offers clinicians a quick and easy assessment tool to identify and consider the complete and often complex picture of patient’s status.

    In critically ill patients fluid balance and weight can be influenced by several factors unrelated to body water, especially in the case of capillary leakage, digestive losses, fever or use of diuretics and ultrafiltration.

As a result of these changes the hydration status and water content cannot be assessed clinically. Maltron BioScan touch i8 NANO offers bedside monitoring to assess fluid status in critically-ill patients.

Significant risks for all infants include overhydration, dehydration, and electrolyte imbalances.

Despite many advances in diagnosis and treatment Kidney failure in Infants and Children still remains challenging.

  • Dry Weight is difficult to establish, calculated by nephrologists as an estimated educated guess

  • There is considerable differences between Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) of premature and full-term newborns.

  • Fluid Dehydration is a common problem in the paediatric population. This is, in part, due to children’s greater susceptibility to fluid losses.

To ensure normal growth Body Composition Assessment in Infants can provide more information about the nutritional status than the simple measurements of body length or weight. Accurate assessment to estimate dry weight can help improve fluid status of renal patients.

Malnutrition is unfortunately still common and is a key contributor to both global childhood morbidity and mortality

Acute and chronic congenital heart disease assessment in Neonatal and Paediatric is difficult and complex.

Seriously ill but compensating children will have signs of either shock or respiratory distress and yet still have a comparatively normal appearance and level of consciousness.

Children hospitalized for acute decompensated heart failure, are commonly known to have worsening renal function. They are associated with prolonged hospitalization and increased mortality or even requiring mechanical circulatory assistance.

  • Signs of decompensated shock includes hypotension. The most common cause of shock is hypovolemia
  • Hospitalized patients will require accurate measurements of patient weight to precalculate drug doses in cardiac emergencies.

After surgery, fluid accumulation changes and BioScan touch i8 NANO can assess these fluctuations.

The results of BioScan touch i8 NANO provide non-invasive accurate measurement and a follow-up can be undertaken in a wide range of cardiac clinical situations.

Severe infection represents the main cause of neonatal mortality accounting for more than 1 million deaths worldwide each year.

Malnourished children are a special category of patients who do not tolerate aggressive fluid resuscitation, as they are at greater risk of congestive heart failure from over-hydration. Septic shock can be difficult to recognize and treat in these patients. Malnourished children require slow IV rehydration with careful and regular observation.

  • Real time monitoring of fluid status can help clinicians ensure the best impact of fluid resuscitation with their patients
  • The BioScan touch i8 NANO parameters for hydration status ensures over-hydration is monitored without leading to complication
  • Maltron's unique Malnutrition Index parameters specially established for babies allows clinicians to perform treatment confidently

Early diagnosis of fluid status in sepsis patients can help identify high-risk patients avoiding complications. Correct fluid status can be performed in Sepsis - ICU patients.

BioScan touch i8 NANO assessment of Muscle Mass can help identify high-risk Cancer patients.

CancerEvery cancer is different and this is especially true for Neonates/Pediatrics. BioScan touch i8 NANO assessment of Muscle Mass can help identify high-risk Cancer patients. In the field of Oncology Maltron has established BioMarker base lines in order to predict patient outcome.

The treatment of chemotherapy dosages is presently based on Body Mass Index. By assessing Muscle Mass and adjusting Chemotherapy dosage long term effects could be reduced and improve patient outcomes.

  • By monitoring changes in muscle mass BioScan touch i8 NANO can help clinicians better understand long term effects of chemotherapy and help establish correct dosage for each patient

  • The BioScan touch i8 NANO’s Phase-Angle is also associated with depletion of Body Cell Mass which is an excellent biomarker for ill health.

Neonates/Pediatrics assessment of Malnutrition Index by the BioScan touch i8 NANO ensure age related development and maturity are met. Parameters available from the BioScan touch i8 NANO can help guide clinicians to better understand and provide relevant treatment which meets each patient's needs.

Helping babies achieve a healthy weight — free to reach their potential as adults


‘Track and Trigger’ for early detection of deterioration

Maltron’s Impedance analyser is the most forward-thinking tool available to clinicians.
Body Fluids Analyser

  Performing detailed analysis of body composition and fluid status can help reduce the worsening conditions in critically ill Neonatal/Paediatrics.

  The extensive range of each parameters measured by the Bioscan meets the comprehensive needs of each baby. The instantaneous assessment of fluid composition of the individual (including fluid status in the different bodily compartments) means Neonatologists/Paediatricians can identify patients in need of special attention.

  Readily available parameters such as ICW and ECW Volume provides an exceptional diagnostic tool in identifying fluid, hydration and nutritional status.

“Fluid status monitoring can offer early organ failure warning”


Managing Fluid and Malnutrition in children is important

Due to unique physiological and development needs, the treatment of Neonatal, Pediatric, Premature and ill new born babies is challenging. Body Fluids Analyser

    BioScan touch i8 NANO is World's first analyser to accurately identify infants at risk as young as 23 weeks gestational age.

    Monitoring changes in hydration, loss of muscle mass and identifying malnutrition can aid clinicians to perform
      effectively and efficiently complex functions.

    The specially designed proprietary algorithms allow BioScan touch i8 NANO to have moving target ranges which
       change during the baby’s development period.

    New integrated flagging features help keep track of patients in need of special attention and complying
      with management protocols.

BioScan touch i8 NANO provides results in seconds rather than hours increasing effective screening, help decrease readmission rates and the duration of stay, which can help improve patient safety and expedite decision making.


Maltron International Ltd, 20 Sirdar Road, Rayleigh, Essex SS6 7XF. UK
Tel : +44 (0)1268 778251 Fax: +44 (0)1268 745176 -
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